FAQ

Archive-name: sun-hdwr-ref/part2
Posting-Frequency: as revised
Version: $Id: part2,v 1.8 1995/08/27 19:18:44 jwbirdsa Exp $

                       THE SUN HARDWARE REFERENCE
                     compiled by James W. Birdsall
                        (jwbirdsa@picarefy.com)

                                PART II
                                =======
                                  FAQ

FAQ
===

    ROM Monitors
    ------------

   Sun-2's sported a rather primitive monitor; with each succeeding
model line, it has become more powerful. In all models, the machine
enters the ROM monitor upon power up. The monitor tries to boot from a
default device, which may be determined by a simple priority-ordered
search for boot devices (Sun-2) or by EEPROM settings (Sun-3 and later).
If it cannot find a boot device or the boot device is offline, it enters
command-line mode. Command-line mode may be manually invoked at any
time, including while the OS is running, by holding down L1 and then
pressing A on a Sun console, or sending BREAK if you are using a
terminal as the console. On all models, the "c" (continue) command
resumes execution at the point where the monitor was entered, so you can
recover from accidentally halting the OS. Note that if you are using a
terminal as the console, turning it off or disconnecting it is usually
interpreted as BREAK and halts the machine.

   Note that the ROM monitor in a machine may or may not know about any
particular color framebuffer, depending on the revision of the ROM and
the age of the framebuffer standard. If the ROM does not know how to
detect and display on the particular color framebuffer you have
installed, it will be unable to display the normal ROM boot messages.
This does not affect OS support for the framebuffer; if you are willing
to boot blind, SunOS should find the framebuffer and start displaying on
it normally. The alternative is to get a more recent ROM or a different
framebuffer.

SUN-1

   No information. The 100U used a Sun-2 CPU (the same one used in early
2/120 units), so it had a Sun-2 ROM monitor.

SUN-2

   The ROM monitor in at least the 2/120 and 2/170 (and probably all
other Sun-2 models) is capable of booting and performing some memory and
register operations, but not much more. There is no online help or
diagnostics.

   The boot command is of the form "b dd(x,y,z) args" where "dd" is a
device string, "x" is the controller number, "y" is the unit number (?),
"z" is the partition number, and "args" are optional arguments to the
kernel. "dd" may be sd (SCSI disk), st (SCSI tape), xy (Xylogics SMD
controller), ie (Sun Ethernet board), or ec (3Com Ethernet board), and
probably others (mt?). For example, to boot from the first partition on
the first SCSI disk on the first SCSI controller (a common
configuration), the command would be "b sd(0,0,0)". To boot from the
first partition on the second SMD disk on the first SMD controller (a
configuration I have), the command would be "b xy(0,1,0)". To boot from
the fourth file on the first SCSI tape drive on the first SCSI
controller (booting from the n'th file may be required during OS
installation), the command would be "b st(0,0,3)".

   Note that the ROM monitor makes certain assumptions about SCSI IDs --
the tape drive is actually at SCSI ID 4, but is referred to as tape unit
0. By default ("b"), the ROM monitor tries to boot from (0,0,0) on the
highest-priority bootable device that it can find in the machine's
slots; the priority order is xy, sd, and ie/ec (don't know which has
priority over the other). It never boots from tape by default. There may
be other bootable devices, but I have never seen them.

   Also note that for at least some versions of SunOS, "args" is not
actually passed to the kernel. The "b" command reads a tiny bootstrap
from the indicated device. The bootstrap then automatically continues
the boot from the same device, ignoring "args". The only way I have
found to actually pass arguments such as the single-user flag (-s) to
the kernel is to use the bootstrap program on the OS tapes, which gives
a prompt rather than continuing automatically. At that prompt, entering
the device information followed by the arguments (e.g. "xy(0,1,0) -s")
will actually get the arguments passed to the kernel.

SUN-3

   The Sun-3 ROM monitor is much more sophisticated. Entering "?" will
produce a list of commands with brief explanations and syntax. The ROM
contains diagnostics sufficient for a preliminary checkout of a machine
for which you do not have a boot device. Syntax of the boot command is
largely the same as for Sun-2's, with a few differences: the default
boot device is determined by the EEPROM settings rather than a hardware
search; on machines with a Lance Ethernet chip rather than Intel, the
Ethernet device is le rather than ie; and "args" is passed to the kernel
correctly.

SUN-386i

   No information.

SUN-4

   The Sun-4 ROM monitor is vastly more sophisticated than even the
Sun-3 version. It has two different command-line modes. The old mode, in
the style of earlier monitors, can do exactly three things: boot (using
the old-style syntax), continue execution, or switch to new command-line
mode.

   New mode uses "ok" for a prompt. Help may be obtained by typing
"help". It has a built-in command-line editor, and (at least in newer
versions) a Forth interpreter (I haven't seen any sign of one on my SLC
but I wouldn't know how to look, either). You can boot either using
the old-style syntax or by specifying a type of device ("boot disk",
"boot tape", etc.). EEPROM configuration is through "printenv" and
"setenv", which use names rather than addresses. Good help is available
for most commands, and there are a lot of commands, encompassing all the
functionality available in earlier monitors and adding helpful new
features, such as "probe-scsi", which searches the SCSI bus and prints
out the ID, LUN, device type, and identification string for anything it
finds.

    EEPROM/NVRAM Parameters
    -----------------------

   Every Sun-3, Sun386i, and Sun-4/SPARCstation has EEPROM or NVRAM on
the CPU board which retains settings for various things the ROM monitor
needs to know to boot and function properly. Most of these locations are
standard across all three model lines; where this is not true, it is
noted in the list below. All numeric values are in hexadecimal unless
otherwise noted.

        0x14    Installed memory
          Megabytes of memory installed

        0x15    Tested memory
          Megabytes of memory tested during power-on self test (POST)

        0x16    Monitor screen size
          0x00   1152 x 900 (standard resolution)
          0x12   1024 x 1024 (1Kx1K)
          0x13   1600 x 1280 (high resolution, see locations 0x50 and 0x51)
          0x14   1440 x 1440
          0x15   1024 x 768 (low resolution)

        0x17    Watchdog reset action
          0x00   invoke ROM monitor
          0x12   imitate power-on reset (default)

        0x18    Operating system boot device
          0x00   poll (default)
          0x12   boot from EEPROM/NVRAM specified boot device

        0x19-0x1A  SunOS boot device name (in ASCII)
          0x78 0x79 (xy)  Xylogics 450/451 SMD controller
          0x78 0x64 (xd)  Xylogics 7053 SMD controller
          0x73 0x64 (sd)  SCSI disk
          0x69 0x65 (ie)  Ethernet (Intel-based controller)
          0x69 0x64 (id)  IPI disk
          0x67 0x6E (gn)  ???
          0x6C 0x65 (le)  Ethernet (Lance-based controller)

        0x1B-0x1D  SunOS boot device controller, unit, partition numbers
          0x00 0x00 0x00 (0,0,0) (default)

        0x1F    Primary terminal
          0x00   monochrome framebuffer
          0x10   serial port A
          0x11   serial port B
          0x12   VMEbus and 3/60-P4 color frame buffers (configure
                  locations 0x60C-0x613 when VX and MVX graphics options
                  are installed)
          0x20   non-3/60 P4 color frame buffer

        0x20    Power-up banner
          0x00   Sun logo display
          0x12   custom banner stored in 0x68-0xB7

        0x21    Keyboard click
          0x00   OFF
          0x12   ON (default)

        0x22-0x23  Diagnostic boot device name (in ASCII)
          Used when NORM/DIAG switch in DIAG position. As 0x19-0x1A, or
          0x00 0x00 to invoke ROM monitor.

        0x24-0x26  Diagnotic boot device controller, unit, partition numbers
          Used when NORM/DIAG switch in DIAG position. As 0x1B-0x1D.

        0x28-0x4F  Diagnostic boot path
          Used when NORM/DIAG switch in DIAG position. ASCII codes for
           path and filename(?) to boot, or all zeroes to invoke ROM
           monitor.

        0x50    High resolution number of columns

        0x51    High resolution number of rows

        0x58    Serial port A default baud rate
          0x00   9600 baud
          0x12   use rate stored at 0x59-0x5A

        0x59-0x5A  Serial port A baud rate
          The baud rate as a 16-bit number, MSB first (e.g. 0x04 0xB0
           for 1200, 0x12 0xC0 for 4800, 0x25 0x80 for 9600).

        0x5B    Serial port A DTR/RTS
          0x00   assert DTR and RTS signals
          0x12   do not assert DTR and RTS signals

        0x60    Serial port B default baud rate
          0x00   9600 baud
          0x12   use rate stored at 0x61-0x62
           Note that when the NORM/DIAG switch is in the DIAG position,
           port B runs at 1200 baud and the settings of locations
           0x60-0x62 are ignored.

        0x61-0x62  Serial port B baud rate
          The baud rate as a 16-bit number, MSB first (e.g. 0x04 0xB0
           for 1200, 0x12 0xC0 for 4800, 0x25 0x80 for 9600).

        0x63    Serial port B DTR/RTS
          0x00   assert DTR and RTS signals
          0x12   do not assert DTR and RTS signals

        0x68-0xB7  Custom banner
          ASCII codes for desired banner, padded with spaces and ending
           with 0x0D, 0x0A in locations 0xB6 and 0xB7

        0x111   Sun386i CPU revision level
          0x01   P1.5 CPU (should not be in the field)
          0x02   501-1241/1324-xx
          0x03   501-1413/1414-xx

        0x112   Sun386i CPU revision level
          0x00   P1.5 CPU (should not be in the field)  ([0x111] = 0x01)
          0x00   <= 501-1241-02 Rev 15                  ([0x111] = 0x02)
                 <= 501-1324-02 Rev 15
          0x02   >= 501-1241-02 Rev 16                  ([0x111] = 0x02)
                 >= 501-1324-02 Rev 16
          0x00   501-1413/1414-xx                       ([0x111] = 0x03)

        0x154   Sun386i SCSI spin-up delay (boot ROM >= 4.5 only)
          0x00   no delay (default)
          0xnn   delay nn seconds

        0x162   Sun386i password mode select (boot ROM >= 4.5 only)
          0x01   command secure mode
          0x5E   fully secure mode
          other  non-secure mode

        0x163-0x16A  Sun386i password
          Eight bytes of password in ASCII.

        0x18F   Logo type
          0x00   normal Sun logo
          0x06   3D logo for cgsix framebuffers
          0x12   custom logo

        0x492   Sun386i power-on mode
          0x02   bypass mode
          0x06   diagnostic boot
          0x07   normal boot

                Sun-3 and Sun-4 password mode select (boot ROM >= 2.7.1 only)
          0x01   command secure mode
          0x5E   fully secure mode
          other  non-secure mode

        0x493-0x49A  Sun-3 and Sun-4 password (boot ROM >= 2.7.1 only)
          Eight bytes of password in ASCII. If the ROM is 2.8, enter a
          '@' character before each letter of the password. Enter one
          letter per location, followed by . If the password is
          less than eight letters, enter 0x00 in the remaining
          locations. The hexadecimal values of the letters can also be
          used to enter the password.

        0x494   Sun386i autoconfig message flag
          0x00   no messages
          0x01   Sun-3 (UNIX expert type messages)
          0x02   verbose messages

        0x60C-0x60F  VX and MVX options boot code
          0x31 0x40 0x00 0x00   use the VX/MVX as the system console

        0x610-0x61e  VX and MVX options bus type
          0xFC 0x00 0x00 0x00   use the VX/MVX as the system console

        0x70B   3/80 power-on mode (boot ROM >= 2.3 only)
          0x06   normal boot
          0x12   diagnostic mode
          other full diagnostic boot


    HOSTID and IDPROM/NVRAM
    -----------------------

   For more information, check out the files listed in Q&A #3-4, but
here is a fast list of HOSTIDs and chip locations.

    The IDPROM or NVRAM contains a variety of important information,
including a machine-type code and the machine serial number. Note that
because of the machine-type code, IDPROMs and NVRAMs can only be swapped
between machines with the same CPU board type. (For example, swapping
between a 3/75 and a 3/180 should work because they both use the
"Carrera" 3004 CPU, but it wouldn't work in a 3/60, which uses a
different CPU.)

   On Sun-3's, 386i's, and early Sun-4's, the IDPROM has a printed label
which indicates the machine type and the serial number as well.

    system      hostid    label  type            P/N      location
    ------      ------    -----  ----            ---      --------
    3/60        1700xxxx  0 xxxx IDPROM          520-1559 U224
    3/50        1200xxxx  4 xxxx IDPROM          520-1295 U0204
    3/80        4200xxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 525-1031 U0205
    3/110       1400xxxx  6 xxxx IDPROM          520-1412 U1409
    3004 (3/75/ 1100xxxx  3 xxxx IDPROM          520-1221 U1409
     140/150/
     160/180)
    3/2xx       1300xxxx  5 xxxx IDPROM          520-1322 U1907
    3/4xx       4100xxxx  D xxxx IDPROM          525-1083 U1701
    3/E         1800xxxx  9 xxxx IDPROM          520-8049 U224

    386i        31xxxxxx  xxxx   IDPROM          520-1811 U601
                -         -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 100-1628 U603

    4/10        80xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 8Kx8 CMOS 525-1343 U0707
    4/15        80xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 8Kx8 CMOS 525-1203 U0707
    4/20        54xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 520-2749 U1011
    4/25        56xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 525-1188 U0813
    4/30        80xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 8Kx8 CMOS 525-1203 U0707
    4/40        52xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 525-1084 U0901
    4/50        57xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 525-1180 U0512
    4/60        51xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 525-1032 U089
    4/65        53xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 525-1109 U098
    4/75        55xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 525-1112 U0512
    4/1xx       2200xxxx  B xxxx IDPROM          520-1638 U805
    4/2xx       2100xxxx  A xxxx IDPROM          520-1532 U1901
    4/3xx       23xxxxxx  C xxxx IDPROM          523-2136 U2202
                                 NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 100-1628 U2200
    4/4xx       24xxxxxx  -      IDPROM          525-1100 U1404
                                 NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 100-1628 U3505
    4/6xx       71xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 8Kx8 CMOS 525-1181 U2701
    4/E         61xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 2Kx8 CMOS 523-8151 U1101
    SS10        72xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 8Kx8 CMOS 525-1184 U1004
    SServ1000   80xxxxxx  -      EEPROM 2Kx8     100-2922 U0209
                80xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 8Kx8 CMOS 100-3528 U1007
    SCtr2000    80xxxxxx  -      EEPROM 2Kx8     100-2922 U0203
                80xxxxxx  -      NVRAM 8Kx8 CMOS 100-2822 U1205

   Note that many of the later models (4/10/15/30, SPARCserver 1000,
SPARCcenter 2000) use the same machine-type code.

   Note that the EEPROM for the SPARCserver 1000 and SPARCcenter 2000 is
soldered to the "Control Board".


    Using a Terminal as Console
    ---------------------------

   Every Sun model has the ability to use a serial terminal as a
console, instead of a Sun framebuffer and keyboard. In general, machines
which have a removeable framebuffer (on a separate board rather than
built into the CPU board/motherboard) require that the framebuffer be
removed; the ROM monitor notes the absence of a framebuffer and sends
output to the first serial port on the CPU board (usually labelled
ttya), and the OS does the same when booted. Machines which do not have
a removeable framebuffer may switch to terminal mode when the keyboard
is not connected, or may require that the console designator in the
EEPROM be changed.

   The Sun 2/120 and 2/170 have an unusual configuration: the keyboard
and mouse connect to the framebuffer board rather than the CPU. If the
framebuffer board is removed, all input and output goes to ttya, as
might be expected. If a framebuffer is present but no keyboard is
connected, output goes to the framebuffer, but input comes from ttya.

   Terminals should be set for 9600 bps, 8 data bits, one stop bit, and
no parity. The Sun 3/260 and 3/280 support the usual connection on ttya,
but can also support a console terminal at 1200 bps on the second serial
port on the CPU board, ttyb.

   The equivalent of L1-A (halt machine, drop to ROM monitor) from a
terminal console is BREAK. Unfortunately, turning off the terminal or
disconnecting it is usually interpreted as a BREAK and halts the
machine. Thus, it is not easily possible to use one terminal with many
machines via a switchbox.


    Memory Display On Startup
    -------------------------

   One of the points which causes much confusion is the startup display
of how much memory is installed versus how much is being tested.

   As with most subjects, little is known about what the Sun-1's
displayed, except the 100U which used a Sun-2 CPU.

   The Sun 2/120, 2/170, and probably all other Sun-2 models simply
display the amount of memory installed. If the ROM monitor sees the
memory, SunOS should see it as well, and if the ROM monitor does not see
it, SunOS is most unlikely to see it either. All memory is tested, but
there are no displays to that effect unless an error is found. (Note
that installing memory boards set to overlapping address ranges causes
errors.)

   With the Sun-3's, the ability to set how much memory would be tested
on startup was added; it is stored in the EEPROM along with a variety of
other settings. The total amount of memory installed is displayed, on
one of the first lines printed (in the same area as ROM revision, serial
number, etc.), but the line stating how much memory is being tested is
much more conspicuous. The amount of memory tested is not automatically
increased when more memory is installed, which frequently leads to dismay
by the installer when the machine apparently does not recognize the
memory just installed. Sun-4's behave the same way.

   SunOS does not care how much memory was tested. It will use however
much is installed. As with the Sun-2's, if the ROM monitor sees the
memory, SunOS should see it as well, and if the ROM monitor does not see
it, SunOS is most unlikely to see it either.


    Miscellaneous Questions and Answers
    -----------------------------------

1)  I can't get anything out of the onboard SX video port on my
    SPARCstation 20.
2)  Why doesn't my old SBus card fit the slot in my newer machine, or
    vice versa?
3)  My IDPROM/NVRAM just died. What can I do?
4)  Where can I get information about the IDPROM/NVRAM?
5)  Why doesn't my new monochrome monitor work with older monochrome
    framebuffers (especially the GX), or vice versa?
5a) My machine won't boot with the monochrome monitor connected. What?
6)  There is a battery on my VME SCSI host adapter board. What's it for?
7)  Can I run my old, slow SCSI drives on a new machine with fast SCSI?
8)  Can I use a type-4 keyboard on a Sun-3 that normally takes a type-3
    keyboard?
9)  I have a VME-based CPU but not the matching chassis. Can I put it in
    some other Sun VME chassis?
10) What's the situation with the 4/6xx and Solaris 1.x/2.x?
10a)Compatiblity chart for SPARCstation 10 Mbus modules and Solaris.
11) Can I use a non-Sun CD-ROM drive? Will I be able to boot from it?
12) Can I use a Sun CD-ROM drive on some other computer?
13) What's the maximum DVMA burst size for various SBus machines?
14) *deleted*
15) Can I put 4M SIMMs in my 3/80?
16) Can I put two 36MHz Mbus modules in my SPARCstation 10/30?
16a)What are the limitations on mixing Mbus modules in a single machine?
17) My Sun doesn't like 3-chip SIMMs.
18) My SPARCstation 1+ says "The SCSI bus is hung. Perhaps an external
    device is turned off." when I try to boot, or it locks up completely
    after displaying the banner. What do I do?
19) My SPARCstation IPC chokes with "panic: mmp_getpmg" when booting.
    What do I do?
20) I have some old SMD drives and controllers and/or a 9-track tape
    drive. Can I still use them with newer machines and OS versions?
21) My Sun-3 won't boot from a SCSI disk, but when I hook the disk up
    to another machine or boot from another disk, it works fine. What?
21a)My Sun-4 won't boot from a SCSI disk, but...
22) I'm getting "timeout" and "disk not responding to selection" errors
    with a brand-new SCSI disk.
23) I have a SunOS CD-ROM with sun3 and/or sun3x versions of the OS on
    it. Can I boot my Sun-3 from this CD-ROM?
24) I have a SunPC Accelerator card with an Intel 486DX on it. Can I use
    one of the DX2/DX4 replacement chips?
25) Can I set the stock serial ports to rates higher than 38400?
26) Can I get an ergonomic keyboard for my Sun? A trackball?
27) What's this 80-pin SCSI connector?
28) My SPARCstation 10 says "Data Access Error" and chokes when
    cold-booting, but typing "boot" at the ROM monitor prompt works.
    What?


1)  I can't get anything out of the onboard SX video port on my
    SPARCstation 20.

        To use the onboard SX video, you need a VSIMM. This is an
        extra-long SIMM that sits in one of the two dual-ported memory
        slots. If you do not have a VSIMM, the onboard SX video will not
        work. If you did not buy the machine in an SX configuration, it
        did not come with a VSIMM. You can order one separately to
        enable the onboard SX video.

2)  Why doesn't my old SBus card fit the slot in my newer machine, or
    vice versa?

        From Chuck Narad:

        In SBus rev A, the cards were designed to snap into place in the
        SS1 enclosure. Later, before the spec went big time (before the
        IEEE standard), we decided to make SBus fit into other
        environments such as VME card spacing (as was done on the
        600MP). For reasons of card pitch and RFI compliance the
        backplate needed to be shorter, since the originators of the
        spec hadn't thought about how to do this; for SS1/SS2
        compatibility the snap-in 'ears' needed to be maintained. We
        ended up with a 2-piece backplate where the 'ears' were a
        removable part, and the screw-holes could be used to mount the
        card in systems that did not use the ears.

        This decision took over a year and cost thousands of lives :-)

        This two-piece backplate was finalized quite a while ago, and
        made it into SBus rev B.0. Unfortunately many third-party
        vendors continued to make older, rev-A backplates for a couple
        years after the change was announced and broadcast in such
        places as the SBus spec, the SBus bulletin, newsgroups, etc.
        Also unfortunately, there was a significant number of old-style
        cards shipped by Sun by that time; the hope was that few
        customers actually moved cards from one system to another, and
        the volumes of new cards swamped the volumes of old cards
        quickly. The theory was that all bus standards go through a
        'shake-down cruise' in their first incarnations, and repairs to
        early decisions sometimes leave incompatibilities with older
        parts (examples include VME, SCSI, Multibus... you get the
        picture). SBus ended up being used in a much wider range of
        machines than it was originally intended for.

        Later, the mechanical team on the SS10 decided to take advantage
        of the removable ears for various reasons, so in that enclosure
        also the older cards won't fit.

        Now the good news; as long as you don't care about minor RFI
        leakeage, you can just cut off the ears on the old card with a
        pair of diagonal cutters, and the card will fit into the slot
        fine, you just can't use screws to secure it.

3)  My IDPROM/NVRAM just died. What can I do?
4)  Where can I get information about the IDPROM/NVRAM?

        There is some information in the HOSTID and IDPROM/NVRAM section
        above. For more, get eeprom-nvram.faq and nvram.faq from
        ftp.netcom.com, in directory /pub/he/henderso.

5)  Why doesn't my new monochrome monitor work with older monochrome
    framebuffers (especially the GX), or vice versa?
5a) My machine won't boot with the monochrome monitor connected. What?

        Older monochrome framebuffers and monitors used a 66Hz vertical
        refresh rate. Newer units use a 76Hz vertical refresh rate. The
        GX framebuffers straddle the two: the dual-slot version does not
        support 76Hz vertical refresh, but the single-slot version does
        (except possibly for very early versions). The most common
        problem is that the machine won't boot with the monitor
        connected, but boots and displays properly if the monitor is
        connected about sixty seconds after power-up.

        An additional gotcha is that older monochrome monitors (up
        through about the SPARCstation 1) used a digital signal with ECL
        levels and a DB9 connector. Since then, monochrome
        configurations have usually been grayscale monitors connected to
        a monochrome framebuffer with analog outputs and a 13W3
        connector.

6)  There is a battery on my VME SCSI host adapter board. What's it for?

        It powers a time-of-day clock chip which is not used by Sun-3's.
        Supposedly some of the VME-based Sun-2's did not have a realtime
        clock.

7)  Can I run my old, slow SCSI drives on a new machine with fast SCSI?

        Yes. You may get a lot of SCSI errors. While the SCSI controller
        is compatible with the older drives, the cables and termination
        are frequently a problem. Cables should be short and of high
        quality, and the termination active. Olders Sun external
        enclosures don't have suitable cabling and termination.

8)  Can I use a type-4 or type-5 keyboard on a Sun-3 that normally takes
    a type-3 keyboard?

        Yes. The cable/adapter is sold by Sun (P/N 530-1478 or
        530-1479), Sun refurbisher Apex, and possibly others; Sun-3's
        manufactured toward the end came new with type-4 keyboards and
        the appropriate adapter.

9)  I have a VME-based CPU but not the matching chassis. Can I put it in
    some other Sun VME chassis?

        In general, yes. CPU boards which have onboard memory can be put
        in just about any chassis, including the 3/50 and 3/60 chassis,
        which don't have a full set of VME connectors -- they only have
        the power connector! CPU boards which require external memory
        boards (such as the 3/2xx) obviously require a chassis with at
        least two slots and a full set of VME connectors.

        With some chassis, there may be problems with lacking voltages.
        One individual reports that a 4/3xx CPU works in a 3/60 chassis,
        except the lack of -12VDC means "we can't use a console on it."

        It is also possible to make multiple CPUs share a VME chassis.
        This is trickier. It requires isolating sections of the bus, and
        being sure not to stomp on specialized slots used for memory or
        SCSI boards.

        Since 3/50 and 3/60 motherboards only use the VME bus for power
        they can share a VME chassis with anything, in any slot.

10) What's the situation with the 4/6xx and Solaris 1.x/2.x?

        From Greg Elkinbard:

         SuperSPARC Rev 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 require patches:
                 Solaris 1.1 - 101508, 101509
                 Solaris 1.1.1_U1 - 101726, 101408
                 Solaris 2.3 - 101318, 101406

         If you have Rev 3.5 or Rev 5.x then you should disable 101509,
         101408, 101406

         Rev 3.5 is compatible with Solaris 1.1, 1.1.1B, 2.3 do not use
         it with 1.1.1A (4.1.3_U1)

         Rev 5.x is compatible with Solaris 1.1, 1.1.1A, 1.1.1B, 2.3

         Galaxy (4/6xx) compatible processors and rev:
                 SM41 - 501-2258, 501-2270, 501-2359 - Rev 2.x
                 SM51 - 501-2352, 501-2360, 501-2361, 501-2387 - rev 3.x
                 SM51 - 501-2607, 501-2562-01, 501-2562-02, - rev 3.5
                 SM51 - 501-2617, 501-2707 - rev 5.x
                 SM520 - 501-2444 - rev 3.x
                 SM521 - 501-2445 - rev 3.x

         Field service manual states that minimum OS for SM520 and SM521
         is 2.3, this leads me to believe that 1.x will not support
         Viking MP reliably (i.e use it at your own risk)

        From the FE manual:

         module          minimum Solaris(SunOS) version
         ------          ------------------------------
          SM100 *1 or 2            1.0.1 (4.1.2)
          SM41  *1                 1.1 (4.1.3)
          SM41  *2                 2.1 (5.1)
          SM51  *1                 1.1 (4.1.3)
          SM51  *2                 2.1 (5.1)
          SM52x *1 or 2            2.3 (5.3)

         Boot PROM 2.8v2 or greater is required for SM41.
         Boot PROM 2.10 or greater is required for SM51.

10a)Compatiblity chart for SPARCstation 10 Mbus modules and Solaris.

        module          minimum Solaris(SunOS) version
        ------          ------------------------------
         SM20  *1                 1.1 (4.1.3)
         SM30  *1                 1.1 (4.1.3)
         SM40  *1                 1.1 (4.1.3)
         SM40  *2                 2.2 (5.2)
         SM41  *1                 1.1 (4.1.3)
         SM41  *2                 2.1 (5.1)
         SM51  *1                 1.1 (4.1.3)
         SM51  *2                 2.1 (5.1)
         SM52x *1 or 2            2.3 (5.3)

11) Can I use a non-Sun CD-ROM drive? Will I be able to boot from it?
12) Can I use a Sun CD-ROM drive on some other computer?

        The "CD-ROMs on Sun Hardware FAQ" is posted periodically to
        comp.sys.sun.hardware and alt.cdrom by Kyle Downey
        (96kfd@williams.edu). It may also be archived at rtfm.mit.edu.
        In general, the answer is "maybe, and possibly only after
        modifying the drive or the kernel."

13) What's the maximum DVMA burst size for various SBus machines?

        This is a very complicated question. The SBus controller is
        probably capable of handling any burst size; the limiting factor is
        usually the slave interface to main memory. The SPARCstation 2
        and microSPARC-based machines were supposedly limited to 16-byte
        bursts (one individual reports that, using an SBus card with
        programmable burst sizes, he was able to successfully use
        64-byte bursts to main memory). MicroSPARC II-based machines and
        Mbus machines supposedly could do 32-byte bursts, and the
        SPARCserver 1000 and SPARCcenter 2000 supposedly can do full
        64-byte bursts. The SPARCstation 20 models with 64-bit SBuses
        can do 128-byte bursts, although there are not many 64-bit SBus
        cards to take advantage of it yet.

14) *deleted*

15) Can I put 4M SIMMs in my 3/80?

        If you have version 3.0.2 or better of the boot ROMs, yes. The
        version is displayed in the startup messages immediately after
        powering the machine on. You can install up to 40M of memory by
        putting 4M 80ns SIMMs in banks 0 and 1 or 2 (sorry, not clear
        which it should be), and filling the remaining two banks with 1M
        80ns SIMMs.

        Note that ROM version 3.0.2 has known problems with booting from
        QIC-150 tape drives.

16) Can I put two 36MHz Mbus modules in my SPARCstation 10/30?
16a)What are the limitations on mixing Mbus modules in a single machine?

        From John DiMarco:

         There is no intrinsic technical reason why a 36MHz Mbus can't
         support two modules. While it is true that you cannot normally
         configure a system to support two M30 modules, the reason for
         this is that early revisions of the SuperSPARC processor
         contained bugs that prevented MP configurations from working
         properly without the 1M external cache. Most if not all M20
         (33MHz) and M30 (36MHz) modules, and many M40 (40MHz) modules
         had this problem.

        In general, if you want to mix and match modules (which is
        unsupported but probably works for a number of configurations),
        you'll need to make sure that the interface speeds of all
        modules are matched.

        The modules without SuperCACHE run at the Mbus speed (or the
        Mbus runs at their speed?), so modules without SuperCACHE cannot
        be mixed. Nor can they be mixed with modules with SuperCACHE.

        Modules with SuperCACHE can be mixed, but this may not be
        advisable. The 41 and 51 modules both require a 40MHz Mbus (SS10
        or SS20 switched to slow board speed), but the 61 can use a
        50MHz Mbus as well. Mixing a 61 with slower modules may slow
        down the 61 as well.

        Another consideration is that slower modules are usually older
        SuperSPARC steppings that may require more drastic workarounds
        and hence slow down newer, faster processors -- assuming it
        works at all.

17) My Sun doesn't like 3-chip SIMMs.

        From John O'Connor:

        3-chip SIMMs have two 4Mbit chips (organised as 1M * 4bits) plus
        one 1Mbit chip as opposed to the nine 1Mbit chips on the 9-chip
        SIMMS. The difference arises from the fact that the 4Mbit chips
        require more addresses to be read in the refresh cycles, so you
        get unreliable operation of 3-chip SIMMs in systems that don't
        provide enough refresh cycles.

18) My SPARCstation 1/1+ says "The SCSI bus is hung. Perhaps an external
    device is turned off." when I try to boot, or it locks up completely
    after displaying the banner. What do I do?

        Check the SCSI termination fuse, located on the motherboard near
        the external SCSI connector. The fuse looks like a small
        cylinder that is usually clear or totally black with a black top
        and white writing. It is in a socket and is easy to remove. If
        adding an external device that powers its own terminator makes
        the machine work, the problem is definitely the termination
        fuse.

        It may also be necessary to change the settings on the disk
        drive, to spin up on command only and not by default. Also, the
        FE manual notes that for SPARCstation 1's with motherboards
        501-1382-10 or lower, or 501-1629-10 or lower, one should power
        on the system before turning on external disk drives.

19) My SPARCstation IPC chokes with "panic: mmp_getpmg" when booting.
    What do I do?

        This may have to do with mixed 1M and 4M SIMMs. Make sure the 4M
        SIMMs are in the first memory bank. This problem was supposed to
        be solved after SunOS 4.1.1.

        Alain Brossard reports that a few very old IPC's experience the
        this failure when booting over the network, and the following
        incantation at the ROM monitor prompt fixed the problem:

                ok 7f fff0.0000 smap!
                ok boot net

20) I have some old SMD drives and controllers and/or a 9-track tape
    drive. Can I still use them with newer machines and OS versions?

        SMD support is limited to VME-based machines, of which the 4/6xx
        is the most recent. Stock SunOS and Solaris support these
        devices on the sun4 architecture (all VME-based sun-4's except
        the 4/6xx) but not on the sun4m architecture (the 4/6xx). It is
        available for the 4/6xx as a special package, however.

21) My Sun-3 won't boot from a SCSI disk, but when I hook the disk up
    to another machine or boot from another disk, it works fine. What?
21a)My Sun-4 won't boot from a SCSI disk, but...

        SunOS can use SCSI disks with SCSI parity turned on. The boot
        ROMs can't boot from them, however -- SCSI parity must be turned
        off to boot. Check the jumpers on the drive or the SCSI
        converter card (Emulex MD-21, Adaptec ACB4000, etc.).

        For a Sun-4, the problem may be that the drive is initiating
        synchronous negotiation. The boot ROMs can't cope with this;
        they expect the kernel to initiate synchronous negotiation after
        booting. Check the jumpers on the drive.

22) I'm getting "timeout" and "disk not responding to selection" errors
    with a brand-new SCSI disk.

        Check the temperature in the disk enclosure! Many newer SCSI
        drives (especially Seagate, apparently) have the ability to spin
        down and otherwise quiesce when the drive gets too hot. When the
        drive it accessed, it will spin up again, but this takes some
        time and the Sun usually complains before the disk can respond.

23) I have a SunOS CD-ROM with sun3 and/or sun3x versions of the OS on
    it. Can I boot my Sun-3 from this CD-ROM?

        Supposedly ROM versions 3.0.1 and above can boot from a CD-ROM.
        Make sure that you're trying to boot from the correct partition
        (these CD-ROMs usually have bootable partitions for a variety of
        architectures). Try booting from "sd(0,30,x)" where 'x' is a
        partition number.

24) I have a SunPC Accelerator card with an Intel 486DX on it. Can I use
    one of the DX2/DX4 replacement chips?

        Only 5V chips can be used. The SBus provides sufficient power,
        but cooling may be a problem. Adding a heat sink and microfan to
        the new chip will probably solve that problem, but may interfere
        with the next SBus slot.

25) Can I set the stock serial ports to rates higher than 38400?

        Yes, but you have to hack the kernel in order to do it.
        Furthermore, the standard ZS hardware is not capable of
        supporting the normal bit rates (57600 and 115200) unless you
        can supply an external clock and run them in synchronous mode.
        The only higher internally-generated rates are 51200 (pretty
        useless) and 76800, which a few modems can be set to handle.
        Also, the 76800 rate will result in frequent overruns unless it
        is being used for pure output, such as to a printer.

26) Can I get an ergonomic keyboard for my Sun? A trackball?

        Ashok Desai (ashokd@Eng.Sun.COM) maintains an ergonomic keyboard
        FAQ. Ren Tescher (ren@rap.ucar.EDU) maintains an unofficial
        trackball FAQ. See also the "Alternatives" section under MICE in
        this reference.

27) What's this 80-pin SCSI connector?

        It is an SCA connector, as defined by the Small Form Factor
        Committee, which provides a wide single-ended SCSI connection
        and power (+12V, +5V). The standard number is SFF8015 23A.

28) My SPARCstation 10 says "Data Access Error" and chokes when
    cold-booting, but typing "boot" at the ROM monitor prompt works.
    What?

        Paul J. Grillo reports that this usually means that the boot ROM
        can't find the boot block on the disk, possibly because there
        has not been enough time for the disk to spin up yet (and by the
        time the user does a manual boot, the disk is up and running, so
        the machine boots normally).


    Facts in Search of a Home
    -------------------------

+ Sun 3/50's and 3/60's often used the Matsushita ETX-593C101M power
  supply, capable of supplying 100W (15A @ 5V, 2A @ -5V, and 1.3A @
  12V). The 3/75 had a 150W power supply. See pinouts below.

+ The Sun 2/50 power supply is rated at 22A @ 5V, 1.5A @ 12V, and 0.5A @
  -12V.

+ Mbus modules for the SPARCstation 10/514 (two 50MHz CPUs and
  corresponding 1M caches) are physically so large that they each cover
  two SBus slots. The SBus slots are not actually used, just
  inaccessible.

+ The Adaptec 5500 card was "similar in function to the 4000", which was
  a SCSI-MFM converter used for disks, mostly in Sun-2's. It had a
  number of jumpers:

        A-B     hard reset
          SCSI bus reset initiates hard reset of card when jumped.

        C-D     reserved

        E-F     hard-sectored drive on LUN0

        G-H     hard-sectored drive on LUN1

        J-K     reserved

        DIAG    diagnostics
          Continuously repeat selftest when jumped.

        Par     SCSI parity
          Enable SCSI bus parity checking when jumped. Parity is always
          generated.

        A4      SCSI ID MSB

        A2      SCSI ID

        A1      SCSI ID LSB

+ The internal SCSI hard drive in any SPARCstation should NOT be
  terminated.

+ The Sun HSI/S interface board (501-1725) has four high-speed
  synchronous serial ports with an aggregate bandwidth of 4-5Mbits per
  second. If only two ports are used, full T1 speeds can be used on
  both. SunExpress says it supports X.25, SNA, Frame Relay, PPP, T1, and
  CEPT.

+ The Adaptec ACB4000 MFM-SCSI adapter board and the Emulex MD21
  ESDI-SCSI adapter board may not coexist well on the same SCSI bus. One
  individual reports getting SCSI disconnect errors from the MD21 when
  attempting to run both on the SCSI bus of a 3/60 running SunOS 3.5.

+ The last version of the boot ROM for the 3/60 was 3.0.1. It supports
  cg6 color framebuffers, and is supposed to support cg8 color
  framebuffers as well.


    Miscellaneous Pinouts
    ---------------------

+ DB9 serial ports on 3/80, 4/3xx, others?

        1  DCD          4  DTR          7  RTS
        2  RxD          5  GND          8  CTS
        3  TxD          6  DSR          9  unused

+ parallel port on 3/80

        1  STBN         9  D7           17 SLCN
        2  D0 (data 0)  10 ACK          18 GND
        3  D1           11 BUSY         19 GND
        4  D2           12 PAPE         20 GND
        5  D3           13 SLCT         21 GND
        6  D4           14 AFXN         22 GND
        7  D5           15 ERRN         23 GND
        8  D6           16 ININ         24 GND
                                        25 GND

+ DIN-8 serial port on SPARCstation IPC, others?

                 -------
                /  ===  \
               /         \
              /  6  7  8  \
              |           |
              |  3  4  5  |
              \           /
               \   1  2  /
                \_______/

        1  DTR          4  GND          7  DCD
        2  CTS          5  RxD          8  RxC (receive clock)
        3  TxD          6  RTS

+ DB25 A/B serial ports on SPARCstation SLC, ELC, others?

        1  unused       9  unused       17 A-RxC (receive clock)
        2  A-TxD        10 unused       18 unused
        3  A-RxD        11 unused       19 B-RTS
        4  A-RTS        12 B-DCD        20 A-DTR
        5  A-CTS        13 B-CTS        21 unused
        6  A-DSR        14 B-TxD        22 unused
        7  A&B-GND      15 A-TxC in (?) 23 unused
        8  A-DCD        16 B-RxD        24 A-TxC out (transmit clock out)
                                        25 unused

   Note that only port A has full modem control.

+ DB25 A/B serial ports on SPARCstation LX, SPARCclassic, and
  SPARCstation 10, others?

   As for the SLC/ELC, but with additional signals for the B port:

        11 B-DTR        18 B-TxC in     25 B-TxC out

+ 50-pin motherboard card-edge test connector on sun4c's

        1  eject        18 direction    35 unused
        2  unused       19 GND          36 VCC (+5V)
        3  GND          20 step         37 ledout-
        4  unused       21 GND          38 VCC (+5V)
        5  GND          22 wrdata       39 unused
        6  unused       23 GND          40 VCC (+5V)
        7  GND          24 wrgate       41 por-
        8  index        25 GND          42 VCC (+5V)
        9  GND          26 trk00        43 VDD (+12V)
        10 ds0          27 GND          44 VCC (+5V)
        11 GND          28 wrprot       45 VBB (-12V)
        12 unused       29 GND          46 VCC (+5V)
        13 GND          30 rddata       47 unused
        14 unused       31 GND          48 VCC (+5V)
        15 GND          32 hdsel        49 VCC (+5V)
        16 motor_on     33 GND          50 VCC (+5V)
        17 GND          34 unused

   Pins 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, and 48-50 (VCC, +5V) are the same as
   pins 1, 2, 7, and 8 on the power connector.

   Pin 37 (ledout-) is the same as pin 2 on the speaker connector.

   Pin 41 (por-) is Power-On Reset, like the Power Good signal on PC
   power supplies, and the same as pin 6 on the power connector.

   Pin 43 (VDD, +12V) is the same as pins 5 and 11 on the power
   connector.

   Pin 45 (VBB, -12V) is the same as pin 12 on the power connector.

+ Power supply connector on (PS?) chassis for 3/50, 3/60, 3/75

        1   -5V     white       7   GND     black
        2   Pwr OK  brown       8   GND     black
        3   +12V    blue        9   +5V     red
        4   GND     black       10  +5V     red
        5   GND     black       11  +5V     red
        6   GND     black       12  +5V     red


    SIMM Compatibility Chart
    ------------------------

   These charts mostly come from the 12/15/93 Field Engineer manual. An
'x' means that the indicated SIMM was available from Sun installed or as an
option for the machine shown. An 's' means that the SIMM was tested and
supported by Sun in the machine shown.

   The 'B' column is bits, 'P' is pins, and 'S' is speed, in
nanoseconds. Part numbers marked with '*' mean that that SIMM is also
present in other model tables.

        SIZE B  P   S    P/N                   MACHINES
        ---- -- -- --- --------  -----------------------------------------

Sun-3 and Sun 386i:

                                 3/60  3/60LE  3/80    386i/150  386i/250
        256K           501-1349           x
        1M   9  30 100 501-1239   x
        1M             501-1346           x
        1M             501-1375                                     x
        1M   9  30 100 501-1408*                 x
        1M             501-1424                            x        x
        1M             501-1510                                     x

Sun-4 (sun4 and sun4c architectures)

                                 SLC  ELC  IPC  IPX   1    1+   2
                                 4/20 4/25 4/40 4/50 4/60 4/65 4/75 4/1xx 4/3xx
        256K 9  30     501-1314                                       x
        1M   9  30 100 501-1408*                       x    x               x
        1M   9  30     501-1466*                                      x     s
        1M   9  30     501-1544                                             x
        1M   9  30     501-1565*                                            x
        1M   9  30 80  501-1697              x              x               x
        4M   9  30 80  501-1625              x         x    x
        4M   33 72     501-1676    x
        4M   9  30     501-1682*                                            x!
        4M   33 72     501-1698    x    s
        4M   9  30 80  501-1739*             x         x    x    x          x
        4M   33 72     501-1812         x         x
        16M  33 72     501-1822         x         x
        16M  33 72     501-1915                   x

        ! 4M SIMMs are not supported on the 4/330 CPU.

Sun-4 (sun4m architecture)
                                 clsX   classic LX/ZX
                                 4/10   4/15    4/30    SS10    4/6xx
        1M   9  30     501-1466*                                  s!
        1M   9  30     501-1565*                                  s!
        1M         60  501-2289   x
        2M         60  501-2433   x
        4M   9  30     501-1682*                                  s!
        4M   9  30 80  501-1739*                                  x
        4M         60  501-1991   x      x        x
        4M   9  30     501-2460                                   x
        16M        70  501-1785                           x
        16M        60  501-2059   x      x        x
        16M  9  30 80  501-2060                                   x
        16M        70  501-2273                           x
        64M        70  501-1930                           x

        ! Only supported on 4/6xx expansion memory boards, not on the
          4/6xx CPU.

Sun-4 (sun4d architecture)

                                 SPARCserver 1000       SPARCcenter 2000
        8M         70  501-1817         x                       x
        32M        70  501-2196         x                       x

Additional notes:

+ SPARCstation 1, 1+, 2, and IPC

   1M x 9 30-pin 9-chip IBM-compatible SIMMs. 100ns or faster for the 1,
   1+, and IPC; 80ns or faster for the 2. The 2 and IPC can also take 4M
   SIMMs.

+ SPARCstation 10, 20

   SS10: 16M or 64M 70ns SIMMs. Can also use SIMMs of appropriate sizes
         from SS20.

   SS20: 16M, 32M, or 64M 60ns SIMMs. The 16M and 64M SIMMs can also be
         used in SS10s, but not the 32M SIMMs.

+ SPARCstation 5

   8M or 32M SIMMs.

              END OF PART II OF THE SUN HARDWARE REFERENCE



Webmaster